Gum disease â€“ Types, causes and symptoms
Gum diseases are of two types - . Gingivitis and Periodontitis. Gingivitis is the less intense form of gum disease and should be treated before it progresses to the more intense form of the disease called Periodontitis. Contrary to popular notion that gum diseases are problem of the old, the young can also be affected. Changes inu life style and risk factors like smoking have increased the susceptibility to these problems.
Types of Gum diseases
As stated earlier there are two types of gum diseases:
Gingivitis is characterized by inflammation of the gums without any destruction of the tissue. There are two types, based on how the disease has been induced. These are plaque induced gingivitis and non plaque induced gingivitis. Plaque induced gingivitis is the most common form and is caused by bacteria adherent to the teeth in layers called plaque. If left untreated, this condition can progress to the more destructive form of the disease called Periodontitis.
Periodontitis is severe inflammation of the gum tissue, which causes progressive loss of the bone tissue. The bone tissue supports the teeth and with its progressive loss the teeth are loosened and will fall off or create gaps between them. Eventually most cases which go untreated require teeth replacement. This disease has sub types depending on the extent of mouth infected. It also has severity classification, determined by the amount of bone tissue that is lost. The loss is mild when there is a 2 mm or less, it is classified as moderate when the loss is less than 4 mm and it is considered severe when the loss is greater 5 mm.
The causes of gum diseases are often bacterial bio films, which form plaques on the teeth. The bacteria rapidly grow and affect the gums, causing reddening and lesions. The immune system starts fighting these bacteria and this causes inflammation of the gums, which are characteristic of the disease. The bodyâ€™s immune response in the process of clearing bacteria, slowly results in supportive bone tissue loss. The disease is progressive and if left untreated will result in erosion of all the supportive tissue. There are certain risk factors to gum diseases. These are - Poor oral hygiene â€“ It is perhaps the greatest risk factor. The plaques are formed due to bacteria thriving on the teeth and in between them. As food collects in the mouth, it becomes more fertile for the bacteria and they tend to rapidly increase in numbers.
Smoking â€“ Smoking is the second risk factor for gum diseases. It is also known to hinder with treatment.
Conditions like diabetes can also increase the risk of gum diseases.
Gum diseases show symptoms like swollen gums, red or purple gums. Often the gums are tender and painful. Bleeding is also common, mostly after brushing. Bad breath or halitosis is another common symptom.
Treatment is usually effective if availed on time and from a good dentist. you find one for free.
Gum diseasesare progressive in nature and are caused by bacterial plaque. Gum diseases are of two types â€“ gingivitis and periodontitis ( severe of the gum diseases). If left untreated, gum diseases can lead to erosion of support bone tissue around teeth.